KUMJ | VOL. 14 | NO. 2 | ISSUE 54 | APR-JUN. 2016
The Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy Among Known Diabetic Population in NepalAbstract:
Mishra SK, Pant BP, Subedi P
The worldwide prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was found to be 34.6%.
WHO estimates that DR is responsible for 4.8% of the 37 million cases of blindness
throughout the world. In a study undertaken in urban population in Nepal, M.D.
Bhattarai found the prevalence of diabetes among people aged 20 years and above
to be 14.6% and the prevalence among people aged 40 years and above to be 19%.
Studies on DR, to our knowledge, have mostly been hospital based in Nepal. Little
information is available about prevalence of DR at the community level in Nepal.
To investigate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors
among known diabetic population of Nepal.
A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among individuals aged 30 and
more using cluster sampling method. The study sites were Kathmandu metropolitan
city and Birgunj sub-metropolitan city. A sample size of 5400 was calculated assuming
5% prevalence rate with 95% confidence level, 5% worst acceptable level and 1.5
cluster sampling design effect. Study participants were interviewed, anthropometric
measurements and fundus photograph was taken from participants with diabetes.
Fundus photographs were used to grade retinopathy.
Around 12% of the respondents were diabetic, mean age 55.43±11.86 years, of which
slightly more than half were females (50.2%). Among these diabetic respondents
9.9% had some forms of diabetic retinopathy, mean age 54.08±10.34 years, 56.7%
were male. When severe grade of retinopathy in any eye was considered as overall
grade of retinopathy for the individual, prevalence of Non-proliferative Diabetic
Retinopathy, Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy and complete vision loss was found to
be 9.1%, 0.5% and 0.3%. Prevalence of Diabetic Macular Edema was 5.5%. Duration
of diabetes, family history of diabetes and blood pressure at the day of survey was
found to be associated with having any retinopathy.
Diabetic retinopathy is emerging as a public health threat in Nepal. With increasing
diabetes, DR can be expected to increase more. Existing eye care services may
require upgrading to provide quality and affordable retinopathy services to address
this emerging problem.Keyword :
Diabetes, prevalence, retinopathy, risk.