KUMJ | VOL. 14 | NO. 2 | ISSUE 54 | APR-JUN. 2016

Clinico-histopathological Survey of Head and Neck Cancer at Tertiary Health Care Centre -Dhulikhel Hospital
Dixit S, Upadhyaya C, Humagain M, Srii R, Marla V

Background Head and neck is one of the most prevalent site for cancers along with lungs, cervix, breast and stomach. Hospital based cancer registries required for effective evaluation of diagnosis and management of cancer is inadequate in Nepal. Cancer registry system established by WHO is acquired by seven major hospitals in our country. However, data from tertiary health care centres like ours remain undocumented. Objective The objective of this study is to perform retrospective analysis of clinicohistopathological types of head and neck lesions which were eventually diagnosed as cancer in Dhulikel Hospital, a tertiary health care centre of Central East Nepal. Method Data regarding head and neck lesions diagnosed as cancer (January 2001- December 2014) were extracted from the archives of Department of General Pathology. These cases were categorised according to demographic profile, site of cancer and histological diagnosis. Result A total of 240 cases matched the inclusion criteria and were selected for this study. Male: Female ratio of 1.3:1 with a mean age of 52 years (52.82±1.8) was found. Two hundred and two (84.16%) patients were diagnosed with carcinoma, 31 (15%) with lymphoma, 3 (1.25%) with melanoma, 2(0.83%) with small round cell tumor and 2 (0.83%) with sarcoma. The most common histological types of carcinoma seen were Squamous cell carcinoma (138 cases; 57.5%) followed by papillary carcinoma (26 cases; 10.8%). Among the lymphomas Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (21 cases; 8.75%) was the most predominant type. The most common site of presentation was oral cavity (60 cases; 25%) followed by skin (36 cases; 15%), thyroid (32 cases; 13.33%) and oesophagus (27 cases; 11.25%). Metastasis to cervical lymph node was found in 39 cases (16.25%). Conclusion Based on these finding, it was observed that Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common type followed by different epithelial and mesenchymal malignancies in head and neck region. The results revealed by this study will provide useful information for planning the health care policies about cancer in Nepal and will be more effective and helpful to the patients of remote areas.
Keyword : Carcinoma, clinico-histopathological, head and neck region, lymphoma, Nepal, sarcoma