KUMJ | VOL. 14 | NO. 3 | ISSUE 55 | JULY-SEPT. 2016

Pattern of Cardiac Diseases in Children Attended at Dhulikhel Hospital, Nepal
Joshi A, Shrestha RPB, Shrestha PS, Dangol S, Shrestha NC, Poudyal P, Shrestha A

Background Congenital Heart Disease and Rheumatic Heart Disease are the most common childhood cardiac disease encountered in developing countries. Objective To study the pattern and the prevalence of cardiac diseases, its age wise distribution and to determine their risk factors for mortality in children presented to Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital. Method A study of cardiac diseases in children, since birth to 16 years of age attending the department of pediatrics in Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital was done over a period of 30 months (Jan 2014 to June 2016). The pattern of disease was studied. Detailed clinical examination of all cases was done followed by the necessary relevant investigations including electrocardiography, chest x-ray, echocardiography and supportive laboratory investigations. Result In this study period, 218 pediatric cardiac cases were encountered, among which 144 cases (66.05%) were Congenital Heart Disease, 57 cases (26.14%) were Rheumatic Heart Disease, 14 cases (6.42%) were Pericardial Disease and 3 cases (1.37%) were classified as Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Majority of Congenital Heart Disease were of isolated Ventricular Septal Defect (25%) and isolated Atrial Septal Defect (20.13%) followed by Patent Ductus Arteriosus (9.02%), Tetralogy of Fallot (6.94%) and Complex Congenital Heart Disease (6.25%). All of the Rheumatic Heart Disease primarily involved the Mitral Valve; however combined Aortic Valve involvement was seen in 26.31% of cases. All the 14 cases of pericardial disease presented with pericardial effusion and two cases presented with constrictive pericarditis. All the cases of pericardial disease were investigated to be of tubercular in origin. Conclusion Septal defects are the most common Congenital Heart Disease encountered in children. Although the prevalence of Rheumatic Heart Disease is decreasing worldwide, it is still a big burden in our community. Tubercular pericardial effusion is still not uncommon and should be suspected with a child presenting with pericardial effusion. Increased level of cardiac care and corrective surgeries are needed for children with cardiac disease in Dhulikhel Hospital,Kathmandu University Hospital.
Keyword : Children, congenital heart disease, pericardial effusion, rheumatic heart disease