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KUMJ | VOL. 10 | NO. 1 | ISSUE 37 | JAN-MAR, 2012

Current Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility Criteria for Salmonella Needs Re-evaluation
Acharya D, Malla S, Bhatta DR, Adhikari N, Dumre SP

Background Disc diffusion technique is the routine susceptibility testing procedure for isolates of enteric fever, the most common clinical diagnosis among febrile patients in Nepal. Objective To evaluated the current fluoroquinolones (FQs) susceptibility criteria and nalidixic acid screening test in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi A. Methods S. Typhi and Paratyphi A strains isolated from 443 suspected enteric fever patients visiting National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) during April through October 2008 were analyzed. All isolates were confirmed by standard microbiological procedures including serotyping. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) approved interpretive criteria. Agar dilution method was used to determine Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and nalidixic acid. Result Out of 41 Salmonella isolates, 80.49% were nalidixic acid resistant, with S. Paratyphi A showing higher resistance rate (88.23%) compared to S. Typhi (75%). The difference in both MIC and zone diameter in nalidixic acid susceptible and nalidixic acid resistant isolates was found to be significant (P < 0.001) and decreased susceptibility to FQs was strongly correlated (sensitivity and specificity of 100%) with resistance to nalidixic acid. Regression analysis of MIC against zone diameter based on the current CLSI recommended guidelines suggests that accommodation of current susceptible and resistant MIC requires increase in the zone diameter of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Conclusion Before using these drugs for management of enteric fever, appropriate identification of Salmonella isolates with reduced susceptibility to FQs is essential to limit the possible treatment failure and development of highly resistant strains. The current FQs susceptibility break point criteria for Salmonella need re-evaluation.
Keyword : Enteric fever, Salmonella, Reduced FQ susceptibility, Nepal