KUMJ | VOL. 5 | NO. 4 | ISSUE 20 | OCT-DEC, 2007

Clinico-laboratory profile of haemolytic uremic syndrome
Jha DK, Singh R, Raja S, Kumari N, Das BK

Objective: To study the clinical profile, the spectrum of functional abnormalities, prognostic factors and outcome of children with haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS).
Materials and methods: This is a prospective, descriptive, single centre, cohort study, conducted on 42 children during the period of January 2004 to January 2005.
Results: The maximum numbers of cases were below 24 months of age with mean age of 26.6 months and male:female ratio of 2.8:1. Most of the cases (79%) occurred in the warmer months (April-September). The common clinical presentations were bloody diarrhoea, pallor, oliguria & anuria, fever, vomiting, abdominal distension and pain, involvement of central nervous system, chest and cardiovascular system and bleeding manifestations. The common haematological abnormalities were leucocytosis, thrombocytopenia, anaemia and features of haemolysis in the peripheral blood. Electrolyte abnormalities observed were in the form of hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hyperkalemia. Arterial blood gas analysis showed metabolic acidosis in 64% cases, where the estimations were done. The mean blood urea and serum creatinine levels were 113.7 mg/dL and 2.5 mg/dL, respectively. Stool examination showed blood in all cases. Urine examination showed microscopic haematuria and significant proteinuria in 74% and 38% cases, respectively. E. coli and Shigella were isolated in stool in three cases each and one case showed mixed growth of E. coli and Salmonella. The mortality rate was 21%. Significantly higher mortality was observed in females, patients presenting with complete anuria, leucocytosis, hyperkalemia and systemic involvement like central nervous system, cardio vascular system and chest.
Conclusions: Female sex, complete anuria, leucocytosis, extra renal involvement and hyperkalemia were associated with poor outcome

Keyword : Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Clinical Features, Outcome, Prognostic Factors