KUMJ | VOL. 21 | NO. 4 | ISSUE 84 | OCTOBER - DECEMBER, 2023

Demographic and Clinical Profiles of Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Managed in a District Hospital in Nepal
Thapa S, Baral A, Bajracharya K, Sharma MR

Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of disability and mortality globally. Information regarding clinical presentation and management of TBI patients in the district hospital settings is inadequate, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study aims to describe the demographic and clinical profiles of traumatic brain injury patients in a district hospital setting in Nepal. Method This study was done at Chautara Hospital in Sindhupalchowk district from December 2021 to June 2022. Sixty-one patients were included using non-probability sampling. The age and sex of patients, cause of injury, distance from the hospital, the severity of the injury based on the Glasgow Coma Scale, site of trauma on the head, and disposition of patients were analyzed. Result Sixty-one patients met the inclusion criteria out of which 29 were males and 32 were females. The mean age of the patients was 42.5 years. The most frequent cause was fall from height (23), and the most common injury site was the frontal region of the head (29). Most patients had a mild injury (52) followed by severe (five). Only two patients had moderate injury. Forty-two patients sustained injury within 5 kilometres of the hospital. Thirty patients were referred to higher centres for further treatment. Conclusion Falls from height is the most common cause of traumatic brain injury followed by road traffic accidents. As most of the cases are mild in severity, the availability of trained human resources and telemedicine consultation in district hospitals can substantially decrease referral to higher centres and therefore decrease the burden of traumatic brain injury patients in the higher centres.
Keyword : Glasgow coma scale, Imaging, Referral, Traumatic brain injury