Clinical and Endoscopic Findings in Patients Presenting with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding at a Tertiary Care Hospital
Sharma P, Sapkota P, Pathak S, Lamsal A, Joshi S, Parajuli S, Rajak S, Tamang A

Background Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding is a severe medical condition that requires prompt evaluation and management. Understanding the clinical and endoscopic findings in patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding is essential for accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. Objective To investigate the age and sex composition, clinical presentations, and endoscopic findings of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding at a tertiary care hospital. Method A total of 561 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding were included in the study. Data on age, sex, and clinical presentation were collected for each patient. Endoscopic findings were recorded, and the relative frequency of various upper gastrointestinal lesions was analyzed. Result The age distribution of patients revealed that 40.82% were between 15 and 45 years, 32.98% were aged 46 to 65 years, and 26.20% were above 65 years. Among the patients, 73.08% were male and 26.92% were female. Hematemesis was observed in 248 cases, while melena was present in 136 cases, and both were present in 171 cases. Recent onset anemia with positive occult blood was reported in 6 patients. The most common endoscopic finding was varices (39.39%), followed by ulcers (15.51%). Mallory Weiss tear was noted in 5.53% of cases. Conclusion According to our findings, varices are the most common endoscopic finding in individuals with upper gastrointestinal bleeding rather than peptic ulcer disease. The considerable increase in varices emphasizes the critical importance of early identification and care in high-risk individuals, as well as contributing to a better understanding of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
Keyword : Bleeding, Endoscopy, Esophageal varices, Gastric varices, Gastrointestinal hemorrhage, Upper gastrointestinal tract